Saturday, August 22, 2020

Theoretical Framework Research Paper Example

Hypothetical Framework Research Paper Example Hypothetical Framework Paper Hypothetical Framework Paper Pack participation had been analyzed and clarified by two hypothetical models, the choice hypothesis, and the socialization hypothesis. The determination hypothesis says that young people join packs since flying creatures of a similar quill run together. Wherein, adolescents who have the tendency for solitary conduct would normally choose young people who likewise show withdrawn conduct and unite as one to frame youth posses (Staub, 1996). Then again, socialization hypothesis depends on the procedure of enculturation or socialization of the adolescent to solitary conduct. The conflict is that not all young people who join packs are solitary regardless however had been associated into acting standoffishly (Winfree, Backstrom, Mays, 1994). Simultaneously, determination hypothesis and socialization hypothesis further collaborate to clarify posse participation and solitary conduct as in choice hypothesis may clarify group affirmation, and socialization hypothesis clarifies why and how pack individuals show withdrawn conduct. In this investigation, both the determination and socialization hypothesis give the points of view at which pack participation will be analyzed. Research Hypotheses Based on the examination inquiries of this investigation, it is estimated that the normal posse part will be male, between the ages of 12-16, most youthful or a lone kid, Hispanic and Black American, secondary school drop-out and are keen on firearms, vehicles, and young ladies. It is additionally guessed that group individuals are enrolled in their own neighborhoods and youth posses follow inception rituals to test the planned member’s eagerness to join the pack. Besides, it is likewise estimated that financial variables, poor relational aptitudes and broken family frameworks, and poor scholastic execution would incline the adolescent to join posses. Finally, it is theorized that mental variables and financial components lead the young to join posses. Synopsis of Remaining Chapters This examination plans to decide the components that lead the adolescent to join posses. This part had concentrated on giving the peruser the foundation of the investigation, the enunciation of the examination issue, the reason and goals of the examination, the exploration questions and the justification for each examination question just as the theorized results of the examination, the confinements of the exploration and the hypothetical system of posse enrollment. The subsequent part will introduce and examine the related investigations and an audit of the writing on pack enrollment. This section means to furnish the peruser with a comprehension of what has been found in the territory of study what despite everything should be improved comprehend the given issue. The third section will introduce the exploration techniques and structure of the current examination, this part distinguishes and clarifies the information assembling and handling of the data that would respond to the exploration inquiries of the investigation. This part would give the peruser the vital detail that would empower others to recreate the investigation which is a key part of logical request. The fourth section will discuss the aftereffects of the information investigation and how it can respond to the exploration questions and whether it demonstrates or discredits the examination theories. The last part presents the conversation, ends, and suggestions of the examination dependent on the aftereffects of the investigation. This area furnishes the peruser with data on the ramifications of the exploration discoveries to the neighborhood network and to packs as a rule.

Wednesday, July 15, 2020

Everything You Need to Know about Project Management

Everything You Need to Know about Project Management We often hear about projects succeeding, and others not succeeding. A number of things could be blamed for the latter: lack of resources and funding, unsatisfactory leadership, lack of direction for the team. In truth, most often it lacks proper project management. © | Rawpixel.comIn this article, youll learn about 1) a definition of project management, 2) a step-by-step approach to successful project management, and 3) an overview of non-traditional project management approaches.PROJECT MANAGEMENT DEFINEDProject Management is defined as the discipline that involves “initiating, planning, executing and controlling the work of a team of people towards the achievement of a specific goal, or sets of goals”. These goals could be the development or production of unique products, services, or some other metric improvements, all of which are expected to deliver additional value. Through project management, activities are conducted using various tools, skill sets, knowledge, methodologies and techniques in order to meet the requirements of the projects.The main goal of project management is to ensure that the objectives of the project are achieved within specified constraints.Projects are, by nature, temporary. They have a defined starting and ending point. They will begin at a specific point in time, and will wrap up once the objective or goal has been achieved.The definition above already marks the difference between Project Management and Program management. It is non-routine and temporary, while Program Management can be long-running. There are defined scopes and resources while, in program management, these aspects could be flexible. There is only one project to speak of in Project Management, but Program Management refers to overseeing several projects all at once.Project management is also considered separate from the normal, repetitive operations of a business. For example, in a manufacturing company, the actual business process of putting resources into production is not a project, since these are permanent (or even semi-permanent) activities of the business. Now, if management decides to devise a new business process to create another set of products, that is the project.Projects have four identifi ed elements:Scope â€" This refers to the size of the project, the goals expected to be achieved upon its completion, and the different project requirements.Resources â€" These includes the people or manpower, the materials, tools and equipment that are used in the execution of the project.Time â€" This encompasses the durations of the tasks, the critical path, schedules, and dependencies.Money â€" Projects involve costs and expenses, contingencies, revenue, and profit.Among the four elements, the scope is deemed to be the most important, since it pretty much covers the other three elements as well. Project Managers must first manage the scope of the project.All four must be managed, however, since they are interrelated. Ignoring one will adversely affect the others, and vice versa. Successful project management means managing all four elements effectively.One question often asked is if there are specific types of project management. Project management takes different forms or types when applied to specific industries. For example, a project in the construction industry will be different from that of a project in the IT industry. It goes without saying that management for each project will also differ, since we are talking about two different specializations or fields here. Still, they are likely to follow the same template of project management by following specific project management processes.STEP-BY-STEP APPROACH TO PROJECT MANAGEMENTProject PlanningThe failure of many projects have been blamed on decisions that were made on the spur of the moment, leading to resources and costs that became too much to handle. This is because they were not able to create a project plan or, even if they did, the plan was not well-made or subsequently implemented. This is the problem with many organizations that are pressed for time: they want to get on with the work, so they skip over the project planning part and immediately launch into it. The result? Too much waste. Very little to no results. A failed project.The output of project planning is the project plan, which outlines all the tasks, activities, dependencies and the applicable timeframes. Here we will look at its contents:Project GoalsWhat are the goals of the project? What does it ultimately want to achieve upon its closing?You have to take into account the needs of the stakeholders, or the people who have an interest in your project and its results. Will the project’s completion mean the satisfaction of their needs? Will it be able to provide a solution to their problems? Obviously, before you can set your project goals, you have to:Identify your stakeholders. They may be your investors or sponsors of the project, the employees or members of the organization, the customers or end-users, or the general public as a whole.Identify the needs of these stakeholders. Keep in mind that stakeholders have differences, and that includes their needs. The needs of the investors, for example, will be di fferent from that of the customers. This may done through surveys and interviews.Rank the needs from most important to least important. This is a way to set priorities, so you will know which ones to address first. The list will then enable you to set goals.The goals you set must be CLEAR and ATTAINABLE. There must be no grey areas and all the members of the project team must be fully aware of the goals, and understand their respective roles in achieving them.DeliverablesWhat are the things that are expected to be delivered by the project team? Of course, these deliverables must be in accordance with the project goals.Along with the project deliverables, you also have to indicate the estimated dates of delivery of these outputs.Project ScheduleWhen you were talking about the project deliverables, you merely gave an estimate of the delivery dates. It is time to zero in on the exact dates of delivery.Each project deliverable has corresponding tasks that must be accomplished in order f or the deliverables to be obtained. In your project schedule, indicate:The specific tasks that must be accomplishedThe estimated length of time (in hours, days or weeks) of performing and completing the taskThe costs and other resources required to perform and complete the taskThe target delivery date of the deliverablesWhen scheduling, be careful to keep things realistic. You do not want to set too tight deadlines, but you do not want it to be so slack that you’ll end up having idle time. Of course, it is a given that there is a chance you will end up needing more time. This can be fixed by going over your schedule and making the necessary adjustments if, and when, possible. With a carefully prepared project schedule, it will be easier for you to justify asking for more time or resources.Support PlansThe project plan may be standalone, but it does not hurt at all to have supporting plans to prop it up a bit. Examples of such plans are:Risk Management Plan, where risks that may be encountered by the project are identified and possible responses are prepared.Human Resource Plan, where the roles and responsibilities, as well as accountabilities, of all members of the organization are clearly defined and described. This will aid the project manager in recruiting members to include in the project team.Communication Plan, because it is inevitable for project teams to collaborate with other teams. By coming up with this plan, there is a clearer picture of how information is transmitted or exchanged among the teams. This also includes reportorial responsibilities.The Project Life CycleProject planning will not be possible if there is no project life cycle to speak of. This refers to the series of activities that must be performed or accomplished in order to achieve the project goals. Granted, projects differ in size, focus and complexity. Still, they all follow the same life cycle.The project life cycle includes five phases. This is also often referred to as tradit ional project management which has five major process steps.1. InitiatingThis involves the determination of the nature and scope of the project. In order to do that, there is a need to look into the business environment and understand how it works. Some of the key activities in this stage are:Analysis of business requirementsEvaluation of historical and current data on the business’ operations, including financial reports and budgetsIdentification of stakeholders and analysis of their roles and impactIdentification of the stakeholder needsIdentification of project objectivesIt is during this phase that feasibility studies are often conducted. These are excellent tools in figuring out possible options that can address the issues at hand and help achieve the project objective.It is also often during this phase that the project manager is chosen and installed, as well as the members of the project team and the other participating work groups.2. PlanningWe move on to the more detailed phase of the project. A project plan or a flowchart is prepared to plan the timing, schedule, costs and allocation of resources to perform the activities in the project. This involves taking into account the cost of associated risks during implementation of the activities of the project. It is also during this stage that the project team will gain the final approval to proceed with the project. Activities performed in the planning stage include:Putting the planning team togetherIdentifying the deliverables of the project, including quality targets and control measures (these may be your baseline)Identifying the activities that must be performedDeveloping a work breakdown structure and mapping their interconnectionsObtaining cost estimates for materials, equipment, labor, and other costsPreparation of project budgetDeveloping a schedule for carrying out the activities in the work breakdownIdentification of potential threats, problems or risks and formulation of appropriate responses should these threats, problems or risks crop up in the course of the project implementationThere is no fixed number of activities to be performed in a project. Some projects may have only a handful of tasks, while other projects consist of a long list of activities. There is nothing wrong with that, as long as you keep your eye on the objective.3. Executing or ImplementingThis is the implementation phase, where the key activities of the project are performed or executed in order to obtain the project deliverables previously identified. In other words, the project plan is now set into motion.Here, the following activities are undertaken:Allocation of resources to the appropriate activities or project phasesCoordination with key stakeholdersCarrying out the tasks listed in the planReporting the project progress in regular meetings4. Monitoring and ControllingEvery step of the project, there is a need to track its progress. This is helpful, so problems can be identified and addressed in order to minimize risks. Feedback plays a major role in this stage. There may be variances from the baseline or target previously set. If they cannot be corrected to bring things back to the original plan, they should be documented as variances.This phase calls for:Measurement of activities as they take placeKeeping an eye on the project variables and continuously comparing them with the planTaking the appropriate actions to correct problems and address issuesRegular reporting to stakeholdersDocumentation of progress and updating of the plan, if anyReview of project deliverables in accordance with the baseline or targets5. Closing or CompletionAt this stage,  the project is formally declared to be completed. This will only take place when the stakeholders have accepted and were satisfied with the final output or deliverable.It involves:Releasing or delivering the final deliverablesDocumentation and archiving of the project files and other pertinent documents used and generated th roughout the projectConduct of post-implementation review, where lessons learned are talked about, in view of being applied in future, upcoming projectsThere is also a need to formally communicate the closure of the project to all the stakeholders.The Project ManagerIn every project, there are several players at work, and the lead character is the Project Manager. You may have assembled a team of highly talented and skilled individuals, with specialized skills needed to get the project done. But you will still need a focal point â€" that one person who will manage the whole project, all aspects of it, from start to finish.The Project Manager is the one handed the overall responsibility for the different processes involved in project management, from initiation to the closing of the project. He is the one who is responsible for achieving the objectives of the project.Listed below are the key functions or responsibilities expected of a project manager:Creating effective project plans and project management plansSetting project objectivesIdentifying the requirements or needs of the projectOverseeing all aspects of the project, including cost and timeCreating reports about the status of the project, and corresponding metricsCommunicating with top management or program managers about the project progressLiaising with other departments and projects within the organizationCoordinating with external parties and other outside stakeholdersOVERVIEW OF NON-TRADITIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT APPROACHESWe have touched on the traditional project management approach, which talks about the stages of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing or completion. However, this is not the only approach applicable, since there have been more methodologies developed through the years. Let us go through each of them briefly.Lean Project Management: This lean approach focuses on reducing time and waste without compromising on the value being delivered. The concep ts often included are lean manufacturing and lean construction, since these are areas that often have to deal with bottlenecks and wastage.Iterative approaches: Agile project management is possibly one of the most talked about concepts these days. Usually applied in the field of software development and information technology, agile focuses primarily on human collaboration and iteration. Various methodologies have been developed surrounding the agile concept, and they include Scrum, Extreme Programming, Kanban and Crystal Clear.Critical Chain Project Management: The focus of this approach is to deal with the uncertainties that come with project management. Of course, it also takes into account that these uncertainties must be dealt with despite the limited availability of resources allocated for the project.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Health Services - 4377 Words

Middleboro Community Health Issues Case Study HCM 5102 Jordan Seidle Fox School of Business MBA Candidate Middleboro Community Health Issues Introduction The county of Hillsboro appears to be a rural, and somewhat isolated, conservative community with some common healthcare related issues that are present in many other rural communities. Educational levels for community members are relatively low, and much of the workforce in the area comes from manufacturing facilities. Due to higher health related costs from manufacturing workers, along with a strong union influence, increases in the community healthcare costs are becoming more present. In addition to this, the more isolated communities within Hillsboro County have a†¦show more content†¦Currently, there are only 576 beds, many of which are not accessible to many of the people who may be utilizing Medicare or Medicaid. This suggests that at minimum, there is a need for 205 new beds within Hillsboro County. Assessing the county population for a 4.31% growth in the over 65 age group (which is a low estimate, due to the large 45-64 group within the county), and including a n additional facility for the Carter Village’s 110 new assisted living program, the number of available beds in 5 years appears to be 686, compared to a demand of 814. Although this facility appears to assist this problem, there still is a need for 128 additional beds for long term care. Again, this is a low estimate, due to the long term care facilities are not necessarily accessible to everyone in the county, as Senior Living of Mifflenville is a private facility, and it does not appear to meet the needs of many of the people who would require Nursing Home Care. This also accounts for 170 of the available beds within the county, which indicates that there is a high need than the aforementioned estimate. To add an additional 128 bed facility in the county could prove to meet a high need within the county. 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( NHS is theRead MoreThe National Health Service Nhs1234 Words   |  5 PagesThe National Health Service (NHS) is the world’s largest publically funded health service and is available to all UK residents. It provides sufficient healthcare to all UK citizens and is funded by government money and taxes. The NHS was launched in 1948 by Aneurin Bevan at Park Hospital in Manchester. The NHS look to achieve good quality healthcare for everyone regardless of how rich they are. NHS is a part of the Department of Health who provide a wide range of Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCG)Read MoreThe National Health Service ( Nhs )1599 Words   |  7 Pages1.0 Introduction The National Health Service (NHS) was started in 1948 by Aneurin Bevan, the minister of health at the time. It was based on three core principles that still underpin the NHS today. It was set up to ensure that everyone could have access to healthcare, despite their financial circumstances (NHS 2013a). 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Assignment 1.1-the Impact of Globalization on Small and Large Corporations Free Essays

Leading from a Global Perspective Module 1: Business in a Globalizing World Assignment 1. 1: Dialogue 1- The Impact of Globalization on Small and Large Corporations Cheryl Tomlin Nov 07, 2012 The Impact of IT and the Internet: Improves shipping and handling procedures and tracking; aids quality control; eliminates contamination; helps companies to follow rules and regulations. Impact of Global Business Regulations: In the global market place, there are four universal points- safety, benefit, legality, and economic viability. We will write a custom essay sample on Assignment 1.1-the Impact of Globalization on Small and Large Corporations or any similar topic only for you Order Now The process might be different between countries, but the goals are the same. Important steps have been made towards global regulatory harmonization as the food industry is driving the harmonization of ingredient regulations. (www. foodnavigator. com) Worldwide Access to Foods: Accessibility to food in a global business environment is affected by global market volatility; supply chain; where the food is being sourced; how countries are getting food; consumer demand; nutrition and health. The Availability of Scientific Research and Talent: Advances in the scientific understanding and engineering techniques have increased agricultural production and have allowed for the commercial-scale production of processed foods. The variety of food available is no longer limited to local products as perishable foods can now be transported farther away and have increased shelf-life. For example, McDonald’s Corporation engineered food not to spoil as fast. Overseas Competition: â€Å" Some competitors may have different profit objectives and some international competitors may be more or less susceptible to currency exchange rates. †(www. winkinvest. com) Future Trends in Globalization Schema: Consumers are becoming more outspoken and demanding in their food choices. According to the Puratos Group, there are 10 future-proof consumer trends for the food industry. Themes include overall quality perception; openness and transparency; local self-expression; city brands; history and tradition; portability; what is healthy based on size, volume, shape and portion; authentic small market look and feeling; convenience. (Moerdyck) In comparing Kraft Foods to Hansen’s, the former has a far greater global reach. In order to minimize marketing expense Kraft has decentralized much of its decision making to local management teams enabling them to make decisions quickly- critical to maintaining an edge in a very competitive industry. On the other hand, Hansen’s operates primarily in North America, with less diversification as Kraft Foods. Kraft has both beverage and food products while Hansen’s only markets beverages; therefore being unable to develop the same level of presence as Kraft Foods in the global market. References: Moerdyck, Anke. Oct 24, 2012, http://blog. insites. eu. http://www. winkinvest. com/stock/Kraft_Foods. Feb 27, 2009. Fletcher, Anthony. Jul 06, 2006. www. foodnavigator. com/legislation/IFT. How to cite Assignment 1.1-the Impact of Globalization on Small and Large Corporations, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

Laws Of War Essays - International Criminal Law, Valerian Trifa

Laws Of War The term laws of war refers to the rules governing the actual conduct of armed conflict. This idea that there actually exists rules that govern war is a difficult concept to understand. The simple act of war in and of itself seems to be in violation of an almost universal law prohibiting one human being from killing another. But during times of war murder of the enemy is allowed, which leads one to the question, if murder is permissible then what possible laws of war could there be? The answer to this question can be found in the Charter established at the International Military Tribunals at Nuremberg and Tokyo: Crimes against Humanity: namely, murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, and other inhumane acts committed against any civilian population, before or during the war, or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds in execution of or in connection with any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, whether or not in violation of the domestic law of the country where perpetrated. Leaders, organizers, instigators, and accomplices participating in the formulation or execution of a common plan or conspiracy to commit any of the foregoing crimes are responsible for all acts performed by any persons in execution of such plan.1 The above excerpt comes form the Charter of the Tribunal Article 6 section C, which makes it quite clear that in general the laws of war are there to protect innocent civilians before and during war. It seems to be a fair idea to have such rules governing armed conflictin order to protect the civilians in the general location of such aconflict. But, when the conflict is over, and if war crimes have been committed, how then are criminals of war brought to justice? The International Military Tribunals held after World War II in Nuremberg on 20 November 1945 and in Tokyo on 3 May 1946 are excellent examples of how such crimes of war are dealt with. (Roberts and Guelff 153-54) But, rather than elaborate on exact details of the Tribunals of Nuremberg and Tokyo a more important matter must be dealt with. What happens when alleged criminals of war are unable to be apprehended and justly tried? Are they forgotten about, or are they sought after such as other criminals are in order to serve justice? What happens if these alleged violators are found residing somewhere other than where their pursuers want to bring them to justice? How does one go about legally obtaining the custody of one such suspect? Some of the answers to these questions can be found in an analysis of how Israel went about obtaining the custody of individuals that it thought to be guilty of Nazi War Crimes. Not only will one find some of the answers to the previously stated questions, bu t also one will gain an understanding of one facet of international law and how it works. Two cases in specific will be dealt with here. First, the extradition of Adolf Eichmann from Argentina, and second, the extradition of John Demjanjuk from the United States of America. These cases demonstrate two very different ways that Israel went about obtaining the custody of these alleged criminals. The cases also expose the intricacy of International Law in matters of extradition. But, before we begin to examine each of these cases we must first establish Israel's right to judicial processing of alleged Nazi war criminals. To understand the complications involved in Israel placing suspected Nazi war criminals on trial, lets review the history of Israel's situation. During World War II the Nazis were persecuting Jews in their concentration camps. At this time the state of Israel did not exist. The ending of the war meant the ending of the persecution, and when the other countries discovered what the Nazis had done Military Tribunals quickly followed. Some of the accused war criminals were tried and sentenced, but others managed to escape judgement and thus became fugitives running from international law. Israel became a state, and thus, some of the Jews that survived the concentration camps moved to the state largely populated by people of Jewish ancestry. Israel felt a moral commitment because of its large Jewish population and set about searching for the fugitive Nazi war